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Intra-group sales
Transactions between Group companies are carried out at arm's length and thus at market prices. Intra-group sales are eliminated from the consolidated income statement, and profits on such transactions have been eliminated in their entirety.
Government grants
Grants and support from governments, public authorities etc are reported when there is reasonable assurance that the company will comply with the conditions attaching to the grant and that the grant will be received. Grants related to assets are handled by reducing the carrying amount of the asset by the amount of the grant.
Research and development
Research costs are expensed as they are incurred. The costs of development work are reported in the balance sheet only to the extent that they are expected to generate future economic benefits for the Group and provided such benefits can be reliably measured. Development costs so reported are amortized over the expected useful life. Development costs recorded as assets but not yet in use are subject to annual impairment testing. Costs for development of existing products are expensed as they are incurred.
Borrowing costs
Borrowing costs are recognized as expenses in the period in which they are incurred.
Tax on income
The income statement includes all tax that is to be paid or received for the current year, adjustments relating to tax due for previous years, and changes in deferred tax. Tax sums have been calculated as nominal amounts in accordance with the tax regulations in each country and in accordance with tax rates that have either been decided or have been notified and can confidently be expected to be confirmed. For items reported in the income statement, associated tax effects are also reported in the income statement. The tax effects of items reported directly against equity are themselves reported against equity. Deferred tax is accounted for under the liability method. This means that deferred tax is accounted for on all temporary differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax receivables relating to tax losses carried forward or other future tax allowances are reported to the extent that it is probable that the allowance can be set against taxable income in future taxation. Deferred tax liabilities relating to temporary differences resulting from investments in subsidiaries are not reported in the consolidated financial statements since the Parent company can control the time at which the temporary differences are cancelled and it is not considered likely that such cancellation will occur in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax receivables and deferred tax liabilities are offset when there is a legal right to do so and when the deferred tax amounts concern the same tax authority.
Cash flow statement
The cash flow statement has been prepared according to the in-direct method. The reported cash flow includes only transactions involving cash payments. 'Cash and cash equivalents' covers cash and bank balances and short-term financial investments with durations of less than three months.
Goodwill and acquisition-related intangible assets
Goodwill represents the positive difference between the cost of acquisition and the fair value of the Group's share of the acquired company's net identifiable assets at the date of acquisition, and is reported at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to Cash-Generating Units (CGU) and each year is systematically tested for impairment using a valuation model based on discounted future cash flow. Deferred tax receivables based on local tax rates are reported in terms of tax-deductible goodwill (with corresponding reduction of the goodwill value). Such deferred tax receivables are expensed as the tax deduction is
Other acquisition-related intangible assets consist chiefly of various types of intangible rights such as brands, patents and customer relationships. Identifiable acquisition-related intangible assets are initially recognized at fair value at the date of acquisition and subsequently at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses. Amortization is on a straight-line basis over estimated useful life. Acquisition-related intangible assets with indefinite useful life are tested for impairment every year in the same way as goodwill, as described above.
Other intangible assets
An intangible asset that is not acquisition-related is reported only if it is likely that the future economic benefits associated with the asset will flow to the Group and if the cost of acquisition can be measured reliably. Such an asset is initially recognized at cost and is amortized over its estimated useful life, usually between three and five years. Its carrying amount is cost less accumulated amortization and impairment losses.
Tangible assets
Tangible assets are reported at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment losses. Cost includes expenditure that can be directly attributed to the acquisition of the asset. Subsequent expenditure is added to the carrying amount if it is probable that economic benefits associated with it will flow to the Group and if the cost can be reliably measured. Expenditure on repairs and maintenance is expensed as it is incurred. No depreciation is applied to land. For other assets, cost is depreciated over estimated useful life, which for the Group leads to the following depreciation periods (on average):
– office buildings, 50 years
– industrial buildings, 25 years
– machinery and other technical plant, 7–10 years
– equipment and tools, 3–6 years.
Profit or loss on the disposal of a tangible asset is recognized in the income statement as 'Other operating income' or 'Other operating expenses', based on the difference between the selling price and the carrying amount.

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The Group's leasing is chiefly operational leasing. The leasing payments are expensed at a constant rate over the period of the contract and are reported as operating costs.
Assets with indefinite useful life are not amortized but are tested for impairment on an annual basis. For impairment testing purposes assets are grouped at the lowest organizational level where there are separate identifiable cash flows, so called Cash-Generating Units (CGU). For assets that are depreciated/amortized, impairment testing is carried out when events or circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable.
When impairment has been established, the value of the asset is reduced to its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of the asset's fair value less costs to sell, and its value in use.
Inventories are valued in accordance with the 'first in, first out' principle at the lower of cost and net realizable value at year-end. Deductions are made for internal profits arising from deliveries between Group companies. Work in progress and finished goods include both direct costs incurred and a fair allocation of indirect manufacturing costs.
Accounts receivable
Accounts receivable are reported at their fair value, which corresponds to amortized cost less any provision for bad debts. A provision is recognized when it is probable that the recorded amounts will not flow to the Group. The year's change in such a provision is reported in the income statement.
Financial instruments
Financial instruments are initially recorded at fair value. Subsequent measurement of financial instruments depends on the classification at initial recognition, which in turn depends on the original purpose of acquiring the instrument. Financial instruments are divided into the following categories:
  • 'Financial instruments at fair value through profit and loss' are financial assets held for trading, financial assets at fair value through profit and loss (classified at inception) and derivatives that are not part of a hedge relationship qualifying for hedge accounting. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of financial instruments at fair value through profit and loss are included in the income statement in the period in which they arise. The category includes current financial investments and derivatives that are not part of hedge relationships qualifying for hedge accounting. See also the section below regarding hedge accounting.
  • 'Loans and other receivables' are non-derivative financial assets, with fixed or determinable payments, which are not traded on an active market. Such a receivable usually arises when the Group provides a counterparty with cash or supplies a customer with goods or services without intention of trading the receivable. Loans and other receivables are carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The category covers non-current receivables, accounts receivable and other current receivables.
  • 'Held-to-maturity investments' are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities which the Group has the intention and ability to hold to maturity. After initial recognition, these investments are carried at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The Group normally holds no, or very limited, amounts as held-to-maturity investments.
  • 'Available-for-sale financial assets' includes non-derivative financial assets that are either classified as available for sale or are not classified in any of the other categories of financial assets. The Group normally holds no positions falling into this category.
  • Financial liabilities, which are neither recorded at fair value through profit and loss nor included in a hedge relationship qualifying for hedge accounting, are reported at amortized cost using the effective interest method. The category covers non-current and current loan liabilities which are not hedged items, other non-current and current liabilities, and accounts payable.
    Acquisitions and disposals of financial instruments are recognized on trade-date, i.e. when the Group is committed to the purchase or sale. Transaction costs are included initially in the fair value of all financial instruments apart from those reported at fair value through profit and loss.
    The fair value of a quoted financial instrument is based on the bid price on the closing day. Regarding financial instruments in a non-active market and for unlisted securities, fair value is determined by using an appropriate method of valuation, for example using available information on comparable arm's length transactions, comparison with similar instruments, and analysis of discounted cash flows.
    The current and non-current distinction is applied consistently to all financial instruments. When settlement or disposal is expected to occur more than 12 months after closing day, a financial asset is reported as a non-current asset. Thus, when settlement or disposal is expected to occur within 12 months of closing day, financial assets are reported as current assets. Financial liabilities with maturity later than 12 months after closing day are reported as non-current liabilities and those with maturity within 12 months of closing day as current liabilities.
    A financial asset is derecognized when the right to receive cash flow from the asset expires or is transferred to another party because all risks and rewards associated with the asset have been transferred to that party. A financial liability is derecognized when the obligation is discharged or cancelled or when it expires.
    Hedge accounting
    Hedge accounting is applied only to transactions that are designated to hedge a specific risk and that qualify for hedge accounting. The Group holds a limited number of such hedge relationships and they include both fair value hedges and cash flow hedges.
    A financial liability is a hedged item when it is included in a hedge relationship qualifying for hedge accounting, thus effectively hedged by a derivative designated as a hedging instrument. The liability (the hedged item) as well as the derivative (the hedging instrument) is recognized at fair value. Changes in the fair value of a liability which is the hedged item of a qualifying fair value hedge are reported in the income statement in the period in which they arise. Gain or loss from revaluation of the hedging instrument of such a qualifying fair value hedge is reported in the income statement at the same time as gain or loss from the hedged item.